The German alphabet uses the same 26 letters as the English alphabet plus an additional three Umlaute (ä, ö, ü / Ä, Ö, Ü) and the ß (esszett or scharfes s = sharp s).
Whereas all of the Umlaute can appear anywhere within a word, the ß can never appear at the beginning. As such there is no such thing as a Capital ß.
Those additional letters are vitally important for the meaning of words. It is therefore important that they are spelt out properly. An ashould therefore never be substituted for an ä.
In handwriting adding those letters is pretty much a no-brainer. Chances are, however, that if you write on a computer that you are now sitting in front of one with an English language keyboard that does not carry those letters.
What to do?
First of all you could simply spell the letters the following way
ä = ae (das Maedchen)
ö = oe (hoeren)
ü = ue (die Nuesse)
ß = ss (die Strasse)
Even though it doesn’t look very attractive, this is a very well accepted (and easy!) way to replace those additional letters. This is what I generally do when I write emails to friends or family, however, when it comes to writing official documents, articles or even blog posts like these, you would want to use the proper spelling.
There are two main ways to find these letters.
If you use WORD as your text editor of choice, you can press
Insert ==> Symbol
and a range of special symbols and letters will be displayed including those German letters that you can simply click on in order to insert them into a document.
If you write German quite frequently finding the letters this way may end up costing you quite a bit of time and instead you may want to remember the following keyboard shortcuts.
In order to type ä, you can press the Alt button on your keyboard, and while keeping it pressed you enter the numbers 0228 from your number pad to display the letter.
All those German letters can be displayed that way:
•ä = type alt 0228
•ö = type alt 0246
•ü = type alt 0252
•Ü = type alt 0220
•Ä = type alt 0196
•Ö = type alt 0214
•ß = type alt 0223